TABLE 1.

Cells and molecules involved in the human immune response directed against Cryptosporidium infection

Stage of infectionMolecules and cells activated or upregulated
Infection of epithelial cellsToll-like receptors, MyD88, NF-κB, FAS/FAS ligand, caspase 3, Bcl-2, OPG, CXCL-8, CXCL-10
Innate response to primary infectionNatural killer cells, IL-15, CD40 ligand (CD154), TNF-α, IL-1β, prostaglandins, substance P
Immune response during repeated infectionCD4+ T cells, IFN-γ
Anti-inflammatory responseIL-10, TGF-β