Table 1.

Antioxidants used to inhibit oxidant-mediated endothelial cell injury

AntioxidantFinal concnDiluentMechanism of actionSite of actionReference(s)
DMPO10 mMHBSSSpin trapping of hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anionsIntracellular 1, 4, 40
DMTU10 mMMethanolScavenging of hydroxyl radicalsIntracellular 1, 32
Allopurinol0.1 mMDMSOInhibition of XOIntracellular 16
Catalase10 U/mlHBSSReduction of hydroxyl radicals to waterExtracellular 16, 24
SOD100 U/mlWaterConversion of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxideExtracellular 16, 24, 40
Mannitol100 mMHBSSScavenging of hydroxyl radicalsExtracellular 24, 32