TABLE 1.

Effects of LPS and MAX on cytokine and NO secretion and parasite survivala

Cell type and molecule or factor assessedCorresponding figure no.Amt of LPS (ng/ml)Day% Inhibition (↓) or augmentation (↑)Amt of MAXb (ng/ml)P value
RAW 264.7 cells
    NO11001NA0-50NA
1100299.5↓0-50<0.001
1100350↓0-2<0.001
    IL-1025,000133↑0-50<0.046
25,0002>100↑0-50<0.001
25,0003NA0-50NA
    IL-63a01NA0-50NA
3a0235↑0-50NS
3a0330↑0-10<0.05
3b5,000147↑0-2<0.005
3b5,000274↑0-50<0.002
3b5,000345↑0-50<0.03
    TGF-β45,000117↑0-50NS
45,000216↑0-50NS
45,000347↑0-50<0.02
    TNF-α50190↓0-50<0.005
50275↓0-50<0.03
50391↓0-2<0.05
    IL-12p7060187↓0-50<0.05
60268↓0-50<0.03
603NA0-50NA
PECs
    NOc71001NA3NA
7100268↓3<0.004
7100393↓3<0.002
Intracellular L. major parasitesc8100149↑3<0.005
8100260↑3<0.01
8100378↑3<0.002
  • a NA, not applicable; NS, not significant.

  • b Comparisons were made between cultures treated with no MAX and those treated with the concentration of MAX that had the most significant cytokine effect.

  • c Comparisons were made between cultures treated with either IFN-γ and LPS or IFN-γ, LPS, and MAX.