TABLE 1.

Comparative studies of TNF-α/IL-1 responses by neonatal and adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells or macrophages

Investigators (reference)StimulusKey findings (relative response levels)a
Berner et al. (18)GBSFor TNF-α and IL-1, neonatal ≥ adult PBMC
LPSFor TNF-α and IL-1, neonatal ≥ adult PBMC
Levy et al. (90)GBSFor TNF-α, neonatal ≥ adult PBMC
Peat et al. (121)GBSFor TNF-α, neonatal > adult PBMC
Williams et al. (152)GBSFor TNF-α, neonatal > adult PBMC
Chelvarajan et al. (28)LPSFor TNF-α and IL-1, neonatal < adult macrophages
Forster-Waldl et al. (51)LPSFor TNF-α and IL-1β, neonatal < adult PBMC
Levy et al. (92)Lipopeptides, LPS, imiquimodFor TNF-α, neonatal < adult monocytes for TLR2, -4, and -7 agonists
Manimtim et al. (97)LPSFor TNF-α, neonatal < adult monocytes
Peters et al. (122)LPSFor TNF-α and IL-1, neonatal < adult monocytes
Weatherstone and Rich (148)LPSFor TNF-α, neonatal < adult monocytesb; IL-1 results similar between groups
Yan et al. (157)LPSFor TNF-α, neonatal < adult monocytes
  • a PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  • b Only cells from preterm infants, not term infants, exhibited an impaired response.