TABLE 2.

Review of systemic infections caused by Hia

Country of origin (population) and year(s)Use of Hib vaccineSample sourceNo. of Hia cases/total no. of H. influenzae casesH. influenzae type(s) (no. of cases)aIdentification method(s) (source of antisera)Reference
England (Newcastle upon Tyne), 1962-1966NoUpper and lower respiratory tract12/106Hib (41), Hic (2), Hid (4), Hie (32), Hif (15)Slide agglutination (Hyland Laboratory, California)19
United States (Vanderbilt University Hospital), 1964-1965NoNasopharynx, blood13/128bHib (56), Hic (3), Hid (23), Hie (22), Hif (11)Slide agglutination (Margaret Pittman)38
United States (White Mountain Apache), 1973-1982NoCSF, blood3/18Hib (15)Slide agglutination (Biologic Products Division, CDC, Atlanta, GA), biotyping24
Papua New GuineaNoCSF9/73Hib (60), Hif (1), NT (3)Slide agglutination (Wellcome Reagents Ltd., Beckenham, United Kingdom), biotyping26
SenegalNoPleural fluid, blood10/504Hib (488), Hic (3), NT (1)Slide agglutination
Gambia, 1980-1984NoPleural fluid, blood2/13Hib (7), NT (4)Slide agglutination
Brazil (16 regions), 1990-1999NoCSF, blood, pleural fluid16/3,204Hib (3,110), Hic (1), Hid (2), Hif (2), NT (49)Slide agglutination; biotyping45
El Salvador; 2000YesBlood, CSF5/431 (8/52)cHib (467), Hif (1), NC (2)Slide agglutination (Difco Laboratory), PCR33
United States (9 sites), 1998-2002Yes“Sterile body site”17/1743NT (1,220), Hib (96), Hif (314), Hie (91)20
United States (American Indian, Alaska), 2003YesBlood, joint fluid5dSlide agglutination (Difco Laboratory)17
South Africa, 1999-2004YesCSF, blood10/281Hib (218), Hic (6), Hid (5), Hie (3), Hif (39)Slide agglutination, PCR14
Canada (University of Manitoba Health Sciences Centre), 2000-2004YesCSF, blood26/52NT (20), Hib (3), Hic (1), Hid (1), Hif (1)Slide agglutination (Difco Laboratory and Denka Seiken), biotyping, PCR42
  • a Hic, Hid, Hie, and Hif, are H. influenzae types c, d, e, and f, respectively. NT, nontypeable; NC, noncapsulated.

  • b Through the fifth year of life.

  • c Prevaccine period (postvaccine period).

  • d Outbreak.