TABLE 3.

Macrophage activation induced by molecular chaperones

ProteinEukaryotic proteinaProkaryotic protein
Cpn10Human protein inhibits caMφ activationM. tuberculosis protein induces osteoclastogenesis
Trx80Claimed to induce novel macrophage activation stateNot tested
TrxHuman Trx activates macrophages (state unknown)A. actinomycetemcomitans protein does not activate macrophages
Cyclophilin AHuman protein activates macrophages (state unknown)Bacterial proteins not tested
PeroxiredoxinEukaryotic protein induces aaMφBacterial proteins not tested
Hsp27Human Hsp27 induces IL-10 but not tumor necrosis factor alphaBacterial proteins not tested
Hsp60Human Hsp60 induces a caMφ-like stateCertain mycobacterial proteins block myeloid cell activation
Hsp70Human protein induces a caMφ-like stateM. tuberculosis protein contains both inhibiting and activating domains
BiPInhibits monocyte activation and may induce aaMφNo bacterial equivalent
Gp96Modified form of macrophage activationBacterial protein not tested
ClusterinInduces what appears to be caMφNo bacterial equivalent
  • a caMφ, classically activated macrophages; aaMφ, alternatively activated macrophages.