TABLE 1.

Comparison of in vivo studies with capsule mutants

Type of cps mutationaCapsule productionbInfection routecTissue(s); time point(s)dLD50eImmunological assay(s)fReference
UV, HSPrecipitini.p.NoneYNone 1
SpCell voli.p.NoneYNone 25
SpIndia inki.t.Lung; 1-28 daysYLung histology 10
SpNoneBurnSkin, blood, liver; 12 h-6 daysYNone 8
SpSwellings.c.Skin abscess; 24 hNNone 22
UVELISAi.u.Bladder, urine, kidney; 5 daysNNone 2
TnImmunobloti.p.NoneYNone 3
InUronic acidi.g.Intestine; 1-20 daysNIntestine histology 11
SpIndia inki.n.Lung, serum; 6-72 hYLung histology, BAL, and serum cytokines 32
SpIndia inki.n.NoneNBAL and serum cytokines 31
InELISAi.t.Lung; 7 daysNLung histology 6
SpHydrophobicityi.t.Lung; 4-14 daysNLung histology 4
SpSwellingi.g., i.u.Intestine, bladder; 1-10 daysNNone 24
TnUronic acidi.n.Trachea, lung, spleen; 12-72 hYLung histology 18
  • a The type of capsule mutation used in the study. UV, induced by UV light; Sp, spontaneous mutation; Tn, transposon insertion mutant; In, insertional mutation; HS, induced by high salt concentrations.

  • b The method used to monitor capsule production. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

  • c The route of inoculation for the animal studies. i.p., intraperitoneal; s.c., subcutaneous; i.u., intraurethral; i.g., intragastric; i.n., intranasal; i.t., intratracheal.

  • d The types of tissues examined and the time frame of the study.

  • e Whether the LD50 was either determined in the study. Y, yes; N, no.

  • f The type of immunological assay(s) (if any) performed in the study.