Table 1.

Bacterial factors capable of stimulating cytokine synthesis

Components of gram-positive species
 Lipoarabinomannan, lipomannans, and phosphatidylinositol mannosides
 Purified protein derivative
 Mycobacterial heat shock proteins
 Protein A
 Lipoteichoic acid
Components of gram-negative species
 Lipopolysaccharide
 Lipid A
 Lipid A-associated proteins
 Outer membrane proteins
 Porins
 Chaperonins
Cell wall components of gram-positive and gram-negative species
 Cell surface proteins
 Fimbriae and pili
 Lipopeptides
 Lipoproteins
 Muramyl dipeptide
 Peptidoglycan
 Polysaccharides
Extracellular products of gram-positive and gram-negative species
 Toxins
 Superantigens