Table 6.

Binding of cytokines to bacteria and growth stimulation

Cytokine(s)Organism(s)EffectReference(s)
TNF-α E. coli,S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri Binding 37
IL-1β E. coli Growth stimulation 43, 44
IL-2, GM-CSF E. coli Growth stimulation 9
TGF-β M. tuberculosis Growth stimulation in macrophages 28
IL-6 M. avium Growth stimulation in macrophages and in culture fluid 10
CSF-1, IL-3 Listeria monocytogenes Growth stimulation in macrophages 11
EGF M. avium, M. tuberculosis Growth stimulation 2