TABLE 1.

Similarities, differences, and uncertainties between human Candida vaginitis and animal models of Candida vaginal infection

ConditionCandida vaginal infectionReferences
HumanRatMouse
Estrogen dependenceYesYesYes35, 54, 78, 83, 126, 130, 133
Candida colonizationYesNoNo54, 57, 65, 66
Protective immunization after resolution of primary infectionUnknownaYesYes26, 48, 62, 65
CD4+ T cell/CD8+ T cell ratio in the vaginal mucosaCD8+ T cells prevalentCD8+ T cells prevalentCD4+ T cells prevalentb26, 47, 63, 67, 78, 110
Role of vaginal T cellsProbably protectivecProtectiveUncertaind47, 50, 59, 61, 100, 129, 145-147
Role of vaginal AbsUncertainYesUncertaind26, 45, 49, 70, 71
Role of vaginal DCProbably protectivecProtectiveTolerogenice50, 88, 145, 146
Role of neutrophils in diseaseYesfNoNog10, 64
Role of Sap and adhesins in diseaseYesYesProbably yesh19, 29, 46, 49, 51, 59, 73, 101, 117, 122
Role of hyphal transition in diseaseYesYesProbably yesh24, 51, 64, 70, 117
  • a As hypothesized in this review, healing of the primary infection and commensalism at least partially immunize against disease in most women.

  • b May be dependent on the mouse strain.

  • c Indirectly inferred by mucosal immunology and pathology of candidiasis at other mucosal sites.

  • d Contrasting results are obtained with different mouse models.

  • e Inferred from the DC phenotype.

  • f Clear data were obtained from experimental infections in volunteers, but data are not consistent for routine clinical specimens.

  • g Neutrophils determine inflammation but do not influence the Candida vaginal burden.

  • h Based on a few ad hoc studies.