Table 1.

Diseases caused by Salmonella subspecies I serotypes in humans and higher vertebrates

Host speciesDiseaseS. enterica subspecies I serotype(s) most frequently encounteredMost susceptible age groupsTypical symptoms or sign(s) of diseaseReference
HumansSalmonella enteritisTyphimurium, EnteritidisChildren (<4 yr)Diarrhea, dysentery, fever 78
Typhoid feverTyphic Children and adultsSepticemia, fevera 78
Paratyphoid feverSendai; Paratyphi A, B, and Cc Children and adultsSepticemia, fevera 78
CattleSalmonellosisTyphimuriumCalves (<8 wk)Diarrhea, dysentery, septicemia, fever 104
DublinCalves and adult cattleDiarrhea, dysentery, septicemia, abortion, fever 99, 104
PoultryPullorum diseasePullorumc , d Newly hatched birdsDiarrhea, septicemia 27
Fowl typhoidGallinarumc , d Growing stock and adultsDiarrhea, comb discoloration, septicemia 27
Avian paratyphoidEnteritidis, TyphimuriumNewly hatched birdsDiarrhea, septicemia 27
SheepSalmonellosisAbortusovisc Adult sheepSepticemia, abortion, vaginal discharge 90
LambsDiarrhea, dysentery, septicemia 90
TyphimuriumLambsDiarrhea, dysentery, septicemia 90
PigsPig paratyphoidCholeraesuisc Weaned and adult pigsSkin discoloration, septicemia, feverb 106
SalmonellosisTyphimuriumWeaned pigs (<4 mo)Diarrhea 106
Chronic paratyphoidTyphisuisIntermittent diarrhea 7
HorsesSalmonellosisAbortusequic Adult horsesSepticemia, abortion 110
FoalsDiarrhea, septicemia 110
TyphimuriumFoalsDiarrhea, septicemia 110
Wild rodentsMurine typhoidTyphimurium, EnteritidisSepticemia, fever 28
  • a Diarrhea develops only in about one third of typhoid fever patients and usually several days after the onset of fever.

  • b Diarrhea is not a typical sign of pig paratyphoid but may develop by the third or fourth day of disease.

  • c These serotypes have been most frequently associated with illness in the preantibiotic era but are now rare or have been eradicated in most developed countries.

  • d Gallinarum and Pullorum are considered biotypes that belong to the same serotype.