TABLE 1.

Infection, immunity, and inflammation in NHPs inoculated with borreliaea

NHP no.StrainInoculationImmunosuppressionDay of necropsyAnti-B. burgdorferi immunoglobulinbInfectioncMyositisd
794N40NeedleIC120+None
793IC120+None
099TISP90+Minimal+
177TISP90+Minimal+
199TISP90+Minimal+
383TISP90+Minimal+
794IS50+High+
372IS50+High
154N40Tick biteTISP90+Minimal+
192TISP90+Minimal+
211TISP90+Minimal+
242TISP90+Minimal+
321PbiNeedleTISP90±eNone
105TISP90+None
012TISP90None
981TISP90None
  • a NHPs that were IC, TISP, or IS were examined by necropsy 50 to 120 days after intradermal inoculation with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain N4O or B. garinii strain Pbi.

  • b As determined by ELISA with whole-cell sonicates.

  • c As determined by TaqMan RT-PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA of Borrelia spp. with 1 μg of skeletal muscle RNA as a template.

  • d As determined by microscopic examination of HE-stained sections.

  • e Positive only when sera were diluted ≤1:500 (as opposed to the standard 1:5,000 dilution).