TABLE 1.

Summary of in vivo studies used to define immunological parameters important in adaptive immunity to C. trachomatis genital tract infection

MethodMajor deficiencyaOutcome of genital tract infectionReference(s)
Adoptive transfer
    CD4+ T cellsNoneReduced bacterial shedding; shortened course of infection98
    CD8+ T cellsNoneMinimal effect98
In vivo depletion
    Anti-IL-12IL-12Delayed resolution73
    Anti-IFN-γIFN-γDelayed resolution84
    Anti-IL-4IL-4No effect73
    Anti-μAntibodyNo effect82
    Anti-CD4 (reinfection)CD4+ T cellsReinfection: increased bacterial shedding, infection of longer duration64
    Anti-CD8 (reinfection)CD8+ T cellsNo effect on secondary reinfection64
    Anti-CD4 and anti-CD8     (reinfection)CD4+ and CD8+ T cellsReinfection: slightly increased bacterial shedding, infection resolves63
    Anti-CD4 and B-cell deficiency     (reinfection)CD4+ T cells and B cellsReinfection does not resolve64
    Anti-CD8 and B-cell deficiency     (reinfection)CD8+ T cells and B cellsNo effect on secondary reinfection64
Gene knockout miceb
    Nude miceT-cell immunityInfection does not resolve85
    SCIDT- and B-cell immunityInfection does not resolve19
    TCRβ chainαβT cellsInfection does not resolve73
    Aβ (MHC class II)MHC class II restricted immunityInfection does not resolve61
    IFN-γIFN-γDelayed resolution and systemic dissemination19, 42, 73, 77
    IFN-γ receptorIFN-γ receptor functionsDelayed resolution42, 44
    CD4CD4+ T cellsDelayed resolution61
    TNFα p55 receptorTNF-α receptor functionIncreased bacterial shedding; infection resolves77
    ICAM-1Leukocyte adhesionIncreased bacterial shedding; infection resolves33
    μMTMature B cells and antibodyNo effect on primary infection; increased susceptibility to reinfection43, 45, 99
    FcRγ/FcγRIIFc receptor functionsNo effect on primary infection; increased bacterial shedding on reinfection59
    β2MCD8+-T-cell functionsNo effect61
    TCRγ chainγδT cellsNo effect73
    FaslprCD4+-Th1 and CD8+-T-cell apoptosisNo effect75
    FasLgldCD4+-Th1 and CD8+-T-cell apoptosisNo effect75
    Pfptm (perforin)CD8+-T-cell cytotoxicityNo effect75
    PKO/gld (perforin/FasL)CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ apoptosis and cytotoxicityNo effect75
    IL-6IL-6No effect74
    iNOSInducible nitric oxideNo effect37, 74, 80
    Nramp-1Nramp-1No effect68
  • a Major functional immune deficiency.

  • b Abbreviations: ICAM, intracellular adhesion molecule; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; Nramp, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein; pfp, pore forming protein; PKO, perforin knockout; TCR, T-cell receptor; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; SCID, severe combined immunodeficiency.