Summary of in vivo studies used to define immunological parameters important in adaptive immunity to C. trachomatis genital tract infection

MethodMajor deficiencyaOutcome of genital tract infectionReference(s)
Adoptive transfer
    CD4+ T cellsNoneReduced bacterial shedding; shortened course of infection98
    CD8+ T cellsNoneMinimal effect98
In vivo depletion
    Anti-IL-12IL-12Delayed resolution73
    Anti-IFN-γIFN-γDelayed resolution84
    Anti-IL-4IL-4No effect73
    Anti-μAntibodyNo effect82
    Anti-CD4 (reinfection)CD4+ T cellsReinfection: increased bacterial shedding, infection of longer duration64
    Anti-CD8 (reinfection)CD8+ T cellsNo effect on secondary reinfection64
    Anti-CD4 and anti-CD8     (reinfection)CD4+ and CD8+ T cellsReinfection: slightly increased bacterial shedding, infection resolves63
    Anti-CD4 and B-cell deficiency     (reinfection)CD4+ T cells and B cellsReinfection does not resolve64
    Anti-CD8 and B-cell deficiency     (reinfection)CD8+ T cells and B cellsNo effect on secondary reinfection64
Gene knockout miceb
    Nude miceT-cell immunityInfection does not resolve85
    SCIDT- and B-cell immunityInfection does not resolve19
    TCRβ chainαβT cellsInfection does not resolve73
    Aβ (MHC class II)MHC class II restricted immunityInfection does not resolve61
    IFN-γIFN-γDelayed resolution and systemic dissemination19, 42, 73, 77
    IFN-γ receptorIFN-γ receptor functionsDelayed resolution42, 44
    CD4CD4+ T cellsDelayed resolution61
    TNFα p55 receptorTNF-α receptor functionIncreased bacterial shedding; infection resolves77
    ICAM-1Leukocyte adhesionIncreased bacterial shedding; infection resolves33
    μMTMature B cells and antibodyNo effect on primary infection; increased susceptibility to reinfection43, 45, 99
    FcRγ/FcγRIIFc receptor functionsNo effect on primary infection; increased bacterial shedding on reinfection59
    β2MCD8+-T-cell functionsNo effect61
    TCRγ chainγδT cellsNo effect73
    FaslprCD4+-Th1 and CD8+-T-cell apoptosisNo effect75
    FasLgldCD4+-Th1 and CD8+-T-cell apoptosisNo effect75
    Pfptm (perforin)CD8+-T-cell cytotoxicityNo effect75
    PKO/gld (perforin/FasL)CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ apoptosis and cytotoxicityNo effect75
    IL-6IL-6No effect74
    iNOSInducible nitric oxideNo effect37, 74, 80
    Nramp-1Nramp-1No effect68
  • a Major functional immune deficiency.

  • b Abbreviations: ICAM, intracellular adhesion molecule; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; Nramp, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein; pfp, pore forming protein; PKO, perforin knockout; TCR, T-cell receptor; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; SCID, severe combined immunodeficiency.