TABLE 1.

Virulence determinants or functions involved in molecular evolution of Y. pestis

Function and protein nameGene identifier(s)DescriptionStatus in organism:Reference(s)Labela
Y. pseudotuberculosisY. pestis
Flea transmission
    GmhAYPO3243Enzymes for biofilm formationPresentPresent11
    SpeA and SpeCYPO0929 and YPO1201Enzymes for biofilm formationPresentPresent46
    YrbHYPO3577Enzymes for biofilm formationPresentPresent71
    HmsYPO1951 to YPO1954Enzymes for biofilm formationPresentInhibited28
    NghAYPO2632Biofilm-inhibiting glycosyl hydrolasePresentInactivated16β
    RcsAYPO2449Transcriptional repressor of biofilm formationPresentInactivated69β
    YmtYPMT1.74Phospholipase D required for survival in fleaAbsentPresent26α
Colonization and dissemination
    InvYPO1793InvasinPresentInactivated63β
    YadAYPCD1.87cAdhesin and invasinPresentInactivated45β
    AilYPO2905Adhesin and invasinPresentPresent31
    YadBCYPO1387 to YPO1388InvasinPresentPresent20
    YapCYPO2796Autotransporter adhesinPresentPresent18
    YapEYPO3984Autotransporter adhesinPresentPresent35
    PlaYPPCP1.07Plasminogen activator promoting bacterial in vivo disseminationAbsentPresent34, 61α
Intracellular growth
    RipAYPO1926Putative acetyl coenzyme A transferasePresentPresent54
    UgdYPO2174LPS modificationPresentPresent22
    MgtCBYPO1660 to YPO1661Magnesium uptakePresentPresent22
    YfeYPO2439 to YPO2442ABC-type iron transporterPresentPresent48
    FeoBAYPO0132 to YPO0133Ferrous iron transporterPresentPresent48
Elimination of host immune response
    YadAYPCD1.87cSerum resistancePresentInactivated45β
    AilYPO2905Serum resistancePresentPresent31
    pH 6 antigenYPO1301 to YPO1305Resistance to phagocytosisPresentPresent27
    T3SSElimination of innate immune cellsPresentPresent56
    Tc proteinsToxicity to mammalian cellsPresentPresent23
    F1 capsuleYPMT1.81c to YPMT1.84Resistance to phagocytosisAbsentPresent13α
    O-antigen genesLack of O antigen is essential for Pla functionPresentInactivated32β
Iron uptake
    YfeYPO2439 to YPO2442ABC-type iron transportersPresentPresent5
    High-pathogenicity islandYPO1906 to YPO1916Siderophore yersiniabactin-based iron acquisition systemPresentPresent5
Virulence-required regulators
    VirFYPCD1.49Positive regulator of T3SSPresentPresent19
    CRPYPO0175Positive regulator of PlaPresentPresent79
    PhoP-PhoQYPO1633 to YPO1634Positive regulator of Ugd and MgtCBPresentPresent44
    RovAYPO2374Positive regulator of pH 6 antigenPresentPresent8
Other virulence determinants
    DamYPO0154DNA adenine methylationPresentPresent58
    HtrAYPO3382Serine proteasePresentPresent78
    LppYPO2394Braun lipoproteinPresentPresent62
    YpfΦYPO2272 to YPO2281Filamentous prophageAbsentPresent12α
Y. pestis-specific chromosomal regions
YPO0387 to YPO0396Hypothetical proteinsAbsentPresent76α
YPO2087 to YPO2093Prophage proteinsAbsentPresent76α
Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosome regions
    LpxLYPTB2046Loss of LpxL enables Y. pestis to evade LPS-induced inflammationPresentAbsent41γ
    R1YPTB0872 to YPTB0878Methionine salvage pathway required for virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosisPresentAbsent51γ
    ORF3 and ORF4YPTB1495 and YPTB3368Hypothetical proteins essential for viability of Y. pseudotuberculosisPresentAbsent51γ
    ORF2YPTB1058Putative pseudouridylate synthase necessary for optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosisPresentAbsent51γ
    R3YPTB2193 to YPTB2201Hypothetical proteins necessary for optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosisPresentAbsent51γ
Genes linked to human-virulence attenuation of biovar Microtus strains
    AspAYPO0348Inactivated in typical Y. pestis rather than human-avirulent biovar Microtus or Pestoides strainsPresentPresent6, 75
YPMT1.43cInactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO1956Inactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO1973Inactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO2258Inactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO2729Inactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO2731Inactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO3049Inactivated in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO1986 to YPO1987Absent in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO2096 to YPO2135Absent in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO2469Absent in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO2487 to YPO2489Absent in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
YPO3046 to YPO3047Absent in biovar Microtus strains rather than typical Y. pestisPresentPresent83
  • a α, acquired by Y. pestis through lateral gene transfer; β, conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis but inactivated in Y. pestis; γ, conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis but absent from Y. pestis.