Table 1.

Moonlighting actions of bacterial glycolytic enzymes

Glycolytic enzymeMoonlighting functionaReference(s)
HexokinaseIn eukaryotes binds to mitochondrial VDAC receptor164
E. coli K1 FimA promotes binding of VDAC1 to mitochondria blocking cellular apoptosis168
PGIDescribed in text
PhosphofructokinasePart of a RNA degradosome complex41
AldolaseIn S pneumoniae, a cell surface lectin which binds host cadherin receptor termed flamingo25, 115
In N. meningitidis aldolase is a cell surface protein involved in cell adherence178
M. avium binds to aldolase from the host151
Triose phosphate isomeraseS. aureus enzyme acts as adhesin for the fungus C. neoformans61, 87, 199
GAPDHDescribed in text
Phosphoglycerate kinasePlasminogen binding protein in oral streptococci102
In group B streptococci cell surface phosphoglycerate kinase binds to cellular actin and may be involved in cell binding and internalization32
Phosphoglycerate mutaseStreptococcal cell surface plasminogen binding protein102, 192
EnolaseDescribed in text
Pyruvate kinaseL. lactis cell surface protein that binds to yeast mannan95
  • a C. neoformans, Cryptococcus neoformans; L. lactis, Lactococcus lactis.