Table 1

Sample checklist for an observation in which a stimulus elicits an effect

Does an increase or decrease in the magnitude of the stimulus translate into a commensurate effect? (e.g., a dose-response relationship)
Does the effect ever occur without a stimulus? (e.g., false-positive rate)
Does the stimulus ever fail to elicit an effect? (e.g., false-negative rate)
What is the temporal relationship between stimulus and effect? (temporal causality)
Is the effect reproducible? (reproducibility)
Can the effect be measured by an independent technique? (validation through independent methodology)