TABLE 2

Increased expression of genes for inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes in response to streptococcal M1 proteina

GeneGene productFCbFunction
IL-8IL-832.9Inducer of chemotaxis in target cells, primarily neutrophils
CCL20CCL20, MIP3A20.2Strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes but also an attractor of neutrophils
HAS2Hyaluronan synthase 217.7Producer of hyaluronan molecules
TNFAIPTNF-α-induced protein 310.6Anti-inflammatory protein
CXCL1Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (GROα)10.0Neutrophil chemoattractant activity
CTGFConnective tissue growth factor9.8Matricellular protein important for wound healing
HBEGFHeparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor9.5Membrane-anchored chemotactic mitogen
IL1RL1IL-1R-like 1 (ST2)7.5The receptor of IL-33
IL-24IL-245.5Cytokine of the IL-10 family, important for wound healing
IL-20IL-205.4Regulator of proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes during inflammation
CSF2Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor 24.9A cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages
RNASE7RNase, RNase A family 74.8Skin-derived antimicrobial protein 2 (SAP-2) with RNase activity
IL1BIL-1β4.7A proinflammatory cytokine
VEGFAVascular endothelial growth factor A3.7Mediator of increased vascular permeability
IL1AIL-1α3.4A proinflammatory cytokine
IL-11IL-113.1A proinflammatory cytokine
CXCL3Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (GROγ)2.8Chemotactic for monocytes and neutrophils
F2RL1Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)2.7Modulator of inflammatory responses and a sensor for proteolytic enzymes
TGFATransforming growth factor α2.6A ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor
IL1F9IL-1 family, member 92.5A ligand to IL-1R-like 2
  • a Determined by microarray analysis.

  • b FC, fold change between M1 protein-induced and control mRNA expression.