TB studies using both rhesus and cynomolgus macaquesa

Exptl designMajor findingsReference
No. of animalsM. tuberculosis strainb (inoculation route), dose(s) (CFU)
6 RM, 6 CMErdman (i.t.), 3,000BCG provides greater protective efficacy against TB in CM than in RM42c
8 RM, 15 CMErdman (i.t.), 1,000–3,000In vitro IFN-γ assays provide reproducible, reliable results while causing less stress than the PPD skin test61
5 RM, 4 CMErdman (i.t.), 100Synthetic peptides may be used in lieu of full-length ESAT-6 protein in TB diagnostic antibody detection assays62d
26 RMErdman (i.t.), 30–1,000Highest rate of TB detection achieved when skin test is combined with PrimaTB STAT-PAK immunoassay63e
4 RMH37Rv (i.t.), 210
3 RMBeijing (i.t.), 1,000
16 CMErdman (i.t.), 100–1,000
4 RMH37Rv (i.b.), 1,000The multiplex microbead immunoassay profiles M. tuberculosis antibodies at multiple stages of infection/disease64
6 CMErdman (i.b.), 25
9 RM, 21 CMErdman K01 (aerosol), 30–500MRI and stereology provides most accurate, quantifiable measurements of TB disease burden; RM exhibit higher susceptibility to M. tuberculosis than CM60
6 RMErdman (i.b.), 500M. tuberculosis antibody profiles depend on the NHP species and infecting M. tuberculosis strain but do not significantly change with TB disease progression43
4 RMH37Rv (i.b.), 1,000
14 CMErdman (i.b.), 25
  • a All studies used Indian RM models.

  • b The Erdman strain is a virulent set of M. tuberculosis isolates existing in two forms, including the laboratory ATCC 35801 isolate and the clinically isolated K01; this strain is most commonly used to study acute tuberculosis. Here, Erdman strain ATCC 35801 was used unless K01 is indicated. H37RV is an attenuated laboratory strain of M. tuberculosis typically used to study latent infection.

  • c A TB vaccine-related study (42).

  • d The study reported in reference 62 also used African green monkeys.

  • e In the study reported in reference 63, additional RM, CM, and African green monkey groups were inoculated with the mycobacteria M. kansaii and M. avium.