TABLE 3

Involvement of the IL-33/ST2 axis during fungal diseases

Disease or pathogenSpecies involvedPrincipal findingsReference
Fungal peritonitisMousePretreatment with IL-33 ameliorated clearance of Candida albicans and survival of mice that was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils and phagocytes59
Bronchopulmonary mycosisMouseTh2 cytokines produced by ST2+ T lymphocytes resulted in defective pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans fungal control60
MouseBALB/c mice infected with C. neoformans revealed induction of IL-33 with accumulation of type 2 pulmonary innate lymphoid cells and activated macrophages in lungs; ST2-deficient mice infected with C. neoformans showed improved survival rate and decreased fungal burdens in lungs, spleen, and brain compared to wild-type control61
Fungal asthmaMouseIL-33 was secreted during Alternaria alternata infection, with production of IL-5 and IL-33 by innate lymphoid cells and eosinophilic infiltration63
MouseA. alternata induced abrupt increase in airway levels of IL-33 accompanied by ST2+ natural helper cell (NHC) production of IL-5 and IL-13; STAT6 found to regulate Alternaria-induced lung NHC proliferation and expression of amphiregulin90
MouseAspergillus fumigatus-induced asthma in mice was significantly attenuated by treatment with anti-ST2L monoclonal antibody plus CpG65