TABLE 4

The IL-33/ST2 axis during helminth diseases

Disease or pathogenSpecies involvedPrincipal findingsReference
Schistosoma mansoniMouseST2-deficient mice exposed to S. mansoni eggs showed decrease in production of IL-4 and IL-5 and formation of pulmonary granulomas66
HumanSerum IL-33 was significantly elevated in patients with acute S. japonicum infection; IL-33 was significantly correlated with number of eosinophils and duration of infection67
MouseThe IL-33 quickly induced after infection induced prompt expansion of IL-13-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells, which are associated with airway contraction70
Nippostrongylus brasiliensisMouseIL-33 was overexpressed in lungs of N. brasiliensis-infected mice and was dependent on trefoil factor 269
MouseIL-33-dependent production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in nuocytes in response to N. brasiliensis73
MouseIL-33-deficient mice showed limited elimination of N. brasiliensis and decreased production of IL-13 by Th2 innate lymphoid cells72
MouseST2+ innate lymphoid cells participated in effective expulsion of N. brasiliensis by production of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-1375
MouseThe transcriptional determinant Gfi1 promoted development of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and controlled their responsiveness to N. brasiliensis lung infection/inflammation; type 2 innate lymphoid cells showed preferential responsiveness to IL-33 via a Gfi- and IL-1rl1-dependent mechanism91
Strongyloides venezuelensisMouseIL-33 was produced by alveolar epithelial cells following S. venezuelensis infection, with IL-33-dependent induction of IL-5 and IL-13 by natural helper cells71
Angiostrongylus cantonesisMouseIL-33 and ST2 were overexpressed in brains of A. cantonesis-infected mice, with production of IL-5 and IL-13 by splenocytes and cerebral mononuclear cells80
Trichuris murisMouseExpression of IL-25 and IL-33 observed in mast cells during invasion by H. polygyrus bakeri or T. muris76
MouseIL-33 expressed during invasive intestinal T. muris infection in association with production of IL-4, IL-9, and IL-1378
Trichinella spiralisMouseExpression of IL-33 observed in cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells following invasive intestinal T. spiralis infection in mice, in association with Th2 cytokine response79
Litomosoides sigmodontisMouseST2 deficiency in BALB/c mice led to significantly increased levels of peripheral blood microfilariae and filarial progeny without affecting adult worm burden following chronic L. sigmodontis infection; increased L. sigmodontis-associated microfilaremia in ST2-deficient mice due to an impaired splenic clearance of microfilariae77