TABLE 5

IL-33/ST2 axis during protozoan diseases

Disease or pathogenSpecies involvedPrincipal findingsReference(s)
Plasmodium falciparumHumanPlasma IL-33 increased in P. falciparum-infected children vs noninfected children; IL-33 level was positively correlated with parasitic charge83
Toxoplasma gondiiMouseIncreased susceptibility to cerebral infection by T. gondii in ST2−/− mice that was associated with increased iNOS, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production85
Leishmania majorMouseIL-4-, IL-5-, and IL-10-expressing Th2 ST2+ lymphocytes and parasites accumulated in chronic cutaneous lesions experimentally infected with L. major86, 87
MouseIncreased Th1 response without alteration of Th2 response following blockage of anti-ST2-Fc antibody treatment in experimentally infected mice vs control mice88
Leishmania donovaniMouseBALB/c mice experimentally infected with L. donovani showed higher IL-33 in serum, with presence of IL-33+ cells and ST2+ cells in liver; ST2-deficient mice showed reduced hepatic parasitic burdens and reduced hepatomegaly vs wild-type controls89
HumanHigher level of IL-33 in serum of patients with visceral leishmaniasis than in healthy donors; presence of IL-33-positive cells in liver biopsy specimens from Leishmania-infected patients89