Table 3.

In vitro cytokine-inducing capacities of SMEZ, SPEA, and heat-killed group A streptococci in human PBMC

Cytokine or chemokineNo. of exptsInductiona (mean ± SEM) by:
RPMISMEZ (100 ng/ml)SPEA (1 μg/ml)Streptococci (107 CFU/ml)
Cytokines (pg/ml)
 Pro- and anti-inflammatory
  IL-1α430 ± 61,497 ± 8521,230 ± 6742,100 ± 638
  IL-64328 ± 1633,695 ± 1,5773,744 ± 1,2985,900 ± 1,320
  TNF-α8530 ± 1988,445 ± 1,9208,190 ± 2,35112,832 ± 528
  IL-12 p4068 ± 4278 ± 79214 ± 551,651 ± 13*
  IL-12 p70b 33 ± 0.321 ± 425 ± 10802 ± 79*
  IL-10570 ± 327,482 ± 2,2706,804 ± 2,1092,526 ± 500
  Transforming growth factor β3647 ± 2881,102 ± 2531,038 ± 275905 ± 99
 Th1 derived
  TNF-β315 ± 4761 ± 189872 ± 24325 ± 4.6*
  IFN-γ64 ± 33,552 ± 6982,428 ± 3294,460 ± 76*
  IL-29116 ± 163,321 ± 5862,720 ± 541253 ± 73*
 Th2 derived
  IL-437 ± 331 ± 347 ± 157 ± 3*
  IL-51020 ± 61,213 ± 1461,075 ± 19018 ± 5*
  IL-133ND61 ± 1747 ± 13ND
 Hematopoietic
  IL-37ND383 ± 65231 ± 6522 ± 22*
  Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor412 ± 81,034 ± 1501,021 ± 144420 ± 358
Chemokines (ng/ml)
 IL-8450 ± 20198 ± 40156 ± 42330 ± 63
 RANTESc 44.2 ± 245 ± 2335 ± 1151 ± 22
 MIP-1α30.7 ± 0.3401 ± 6.931 ± 8.229.8 ± 3.8
  • a Incubation time, 72 h unless noted otherwise. ND, not detectable; * P < 0.05 between superantigens and heat-killed streptococci.

  • b Incubation time, 24 h.

  • c Incubation time, 48 h.