TABLE 2.

Effect of coinjection of hGM-CSF plasmid on induction of IFN-γ responses in volunteers immunized with a DNA vaccine mixture encoding five P. falciparum pre-erythrocyte-stage antigens

CohorthGM-CSF (μg/dose)No. of IFN-γ responders/no. tested to each of five vaccine componentsaTotal
CSPSSP2EXP-1LSA-1LSA-3
106/82/84/83/81/86/8
2204/83/84/84/83/84/8
31002/71/71/72/70/72/7
45002/81/83/83/80/83/8
Total responders/total vaccinees14/31 (45.2%)7/31 (22.6%)12/31 (38.7%)12/31 (38.7%)4/31 (12.9%)15/31 (48.4%)
Total responders/total controls (P valueb)0/12 (0.005)0/12 (0.07)0/12 (0.011)0/12 (0.011)0/12 (0.19)0/12 (0.003)
  • a Number of IFN-γ responders represents the positive IFN-γ responses detected at 2 weeks after the second immunization and 2 weeks after the third immunization.

  • b P values were calculated using a chi-square test (two tailed).